4. Tongue Tie
It is a condition where the tongue is attached by a band to the floor of mouth, restricting mobility of the tongue. This may result into difficulties with speech or swallowing. It can easily be corrected by a procedure called frenulectomy (Release of tongue tie).
The most common cause of bleeding from the nose in children is nose picking and dryness of inside lining of the nose. This can be addressed by providing moisture to the area, changing habits or even simple cauterization if necessary.
6.Congenital Neck Mass
The common conditions which cause neck swellings in childhood include thyroglossal duct cyst, branchial cysts, branchial fistulas etc
Failure of closure of tracts during development can lead to formation of cysts in the neck. They can be managed very well with appropriate surgery and cosmetically favorable minimal incisions.
7. Sinus Infection
In pediatric age group maximal medical treatment remains to be the mainstay of care to avoid surgery. However congenital disorders like cystic fibrosis need to be ruled out in children with nasal polyps.
8.Difficulty Breathing or Stridor
Common conditions which can cause breathing difficulties or noisy breathing in childhood are
A collapse of laryngeal cartilages above the vocal folds leads to breathing difficulties or noisy breathing. This is usually seen one mouth after birth in affected babies. Surgery is only indicated if patient turns blue (is not receiving enough oxygen) or is having difficulty feeding resulting into failure to thrive. But most patients do not need any surgical intervention.
Choanal Atersia –
It is an absence of opening from nose to mouth. The baby is unable to breathe through the nose. Newborns are obligate nasal breathers. Bilateral choanal atresia needs urgent surgical intervention. Unilateral can be operated at a later date.